What Causes Acne
Acne is a multifactorial disease
In other words, the factors that cause acne are many, the occurrence and development of acne is the result of multiple factors combined effect. There are many causes of acne. With the development of science, people's understanding of the cause of acne is also constantly updated. At present, the incidence of acne mainly with sex hormone levels, sebaceous gland hyperthyroidism, Propionibacterium acnes, hair follicle sebaceous gland ductal abnormalities and inflammation and other factors. Moreover, genetic factors, psychological factors, immune factors, physical and chemical factors, drug factors also played a role.
Is there a relationship between acne and genetic factors?
Genetic factors are hotspots in recent years. More and more diseases are confirmed to be related to genetic factors, acne is also such a disease. The morbidity of first-degree relatives and second-degree relatives of acne patients was 22.5% ~ 78.47% and 7.19% ~ 75.05% respectively, while the incidence of acne in the normal population was only 12.2%. Both parents have acne, their children's acne morbidity is 26 times the parents without acne. Patients with family history of acne are younger than those with no family history of acne. It can be seen that genetic factors play an important role in acne susceptibility. So, genetic factors in the end how the occurrence of acne, play a role in the development of it? The current study suggests that acne is associated with a variety of genes. Polymorphisms of some related genes, especially single nucleotide polymorphisms, may play an important role. In recent years, the susceptibility genes of acne have been found to be the hotspots of research, such as androgen receptor gene, cytochrome P450 gene, interleukin-1a gene, tumor necrosis silver-a gene, ToII-like receptor 2 gene, Growth factor-1 gene, and human leukocyte antigen gene. Related research is ongoing, the current discovery of these genes and acne have a certain correlation, but did not find all the common susceptibility of acne patients gene. At present, the genetic factors and the incidence of acne is no clear direct causal relationship, combined with the incidence of acne is also endocrine, infection, the environment and other factors, it can not predict the incidence of acne children. For the family of acne patients in the crowd, should pay attention to health care, attention to skin health, try to avoid adverse stimuli induced acne.
What is the relationship between acne and endocrine factors?
From the onset of acne puberty, puberty after the reduction or self-healing, before menstruation increased, and castration are not the disease, androgen plays an important role in the incidence of acne. As previously mentioned, the development and secretion of sebaceous glands is dominated by androgen. Specifically, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione and other androgen, the most important is testosterone. Testosterone can be converted into more active dihydrotestosterone in sebaceous gland cells. Dihydrotestosterone and sebaceous gland cells within the specific hormone receptor binding, regulation of sebaceous gland hyperplasia, differentiation and sebaceous gland secretion. Androgen can stimulate the sebaceous glands to accelerate cell cycle and lipid synthesis, but also to promote epidermal keratinosis. Adolescent in the role of androgen under the sebaceous gland activity increased, leading to a large number of lipid secretion. This is a prerequisite for the occurrence of acne. Most of the young people after adolescence face social, family, economic and other aspects of the pressure, greater volatility. Unhealthy emotions can not vent for a long time, stimulate the emotional loop of the cerebral cortex to release the nerve impulses into the hypothalamus - pituitary - gonadal axis to increase androgen, causing puberty after acne. Tired and stay up late will increase the condition. Therefore, patients should pay attention to regular life and rest in daily life, reduce the number of nights, and improve their psychological ability to compress, consciously self-regulation, to maintain a good mental mood, if necessary, to seek the help of a psychiatrist. Female patients if there are irregular menstruation, hairy, infertility and other symptoms, need to improve pelvic ultrasound, sex hormones and other tests to determine whether the merger of polycystic ovary syndrome.
What is the relationship between acne and microbial factors?
The incidence of acne is associated with the role of microbes in hair follicles and sebaceous glands. Hair follicle sebaceous gland units exist in a variety of micro-organisms, there are Propionibacterium acnes, Propionibacterium, Propionibacterium, Bacillus, Oral Pityrospora and so on. Among them, Propionibacterium acnes is the main pathogen. Propionibacterium acnes is the most important microorganism planted in human skin follicles and sebaceous glands. This bacterium is a non-kinetic, anaerobic, spore-free bacillus. Previous studies suggest that Propionibacterium acnes can release esterase, causing lipid decomposition to produce large amounts of free fatty acids. Free fatty acids can stimulate hair follicles and hair follicles around the occurrence of non-specific inflammatory response, leading to the occurrence of acne. Recent studies have also found that Propionibacterium acnes can also be through humoral immunity, cellular immunity and other ways to induce inflammatory response. Mainly in the following areas: 1, induced monocytes and keratinocytes secrete tumor necrosis factor-a (IL-1), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-8 and other cytokines, chemotactic inflammatory cells to the hair follicles around, causing inflammation. 2, can stimulate the keratinocytes to produce reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress to destroy the follicular epithelium, damage the surrounding tissue. 3, through the keratinocytes in the TOII-like receptor activation, triggering cytokine release, exacerbate the inflammatory reaction of acne. 4, increase the expression of matrix metalloproteinases, increase the inflammatory response of acne and affect the post-inflammatory matrix remodeling, leading to scar formation. In addition, Propionibacterium acnes enhances the expression of interleukin-1a, stimulates insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor system, up-regulates the expression of integrins, Of excessive keratinization, resulting in hair follicle blockage, which led to the occurrence of acne. It can be seen that the role of local microbes in hair follicles play an important role in the pathogenesis of acne. This provides a direction for the treatment of acne, a variety of oral, topical antibiotics and a variety of laser treatment came into being.